A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei SS Maurizio e Lazzaro, often shortened to the Ordine Mauriziano) is a combination of two ancient orders. Amadeus VIII, first Duke of Savoy (reigned 1391 — 1440), founded the Order of St. Maurice in 1434 when he retired to the Castle of Ripaille on the south shore of Lake Geneva. The Order consisted of a few knights he carefully selected to advise him on such affairs of state as he continued to control. The Order was named after St. Maurice who had previously been adopted as a patron saint of the Savoy dynasty. Legend has it that St. Maurice, an officer of the Roman Empire’s Theban Legion in Alpine Gaul, was martyred (c. 300 AD) near what is today the Swiss town of Saint Maurice d’Agaune, south east of Lake Geneva, then Savoy territory.
Over a century after the death of Amadeus VIII, the Order of St. Maurice, under the leadership of Emmanuel Philibert (lived 1528 - 1580), fourth Duke of Savoy and great-grandson of Amadeus VIII, was revived in 1571 with a military and religious character, by Pope Pius V. The following year it was united to the Order of St. Lazarus by Pope Gregory XIII. The hereditary Grand Mastership of the newly combined Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus was conferred upon the Dukes of Savoy in perpetuity.
The Order of St. Lazarus had a longer though more episodic history. It had been founded as a hospitaller order, in the form of a military and religious community, at the time of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. Its primary object was assisting lepers, many of whom were among its members. Popes, princes and nobles endowed it with estates and privileges, including that of administering and succeeding to the property of lepers. However, with the advance of the Saracens the knights of St. Lazarus left the Holy Land and Egypt and eventually migrated to France (1291) and Naples (1311), where they founded leper hospitals. (A confinement house for patients suffering from communicable diseases is still known in Italy as a "lazaretto.")
The Order of St. Lazarus in Naples, which alone was afterwards recognized by The Holy See as the legitimate descendant of the Jerusalem community, was empowered to seize and confine anyone suspected of leprosy. In the 15th and 16th centuries dissensions broke out among the knights and the order declined until following Giannotto Castiglioni, the position of Grand Master went to Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy in 1571.
A year later, the orders of St. Lazarus and St. Maurice were incorporated by Pope Gregory XIII into one community, the members of which were to devote themselves to the defense of the Holy See and to fight its enemies as well as to continue assisting lepers. The galleys of the order subsequently took part in various expeditions against the Turks and the Barbary pirates.
Leprosy, which had almost disappeared in the 17th century, broke out once more in the 18th, and in 1773 a hospital was established by the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus at Aosta, made famous by Xavier de Maistre’s tale, Le Lépreux de la cité d’Aoste. By the time that statutes were published in 1816, the order had lost its military character. It was reformed first by Charles Albert of Savoy, King of Piedmont, in 1831; and later by Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, King of Italy, in 1868 and by Prince Victor Emmanuel IV of Savoy in 1996 and again in 1999.
After the unification of Italy in 1861 and the proclamation of the Italian Kingdom under the Savoy dynasty, the knighthood of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus became a state dignity conferred by the King, as hereditary Grand Master, on persons distinguished in the public service, science, arts and letters, trade, and above all in charitable works, to which its income was devoted.
The Italian throne was formally abolished by referendum in 1946 and a republic was instituted in its place.
Today the order is conferred by its 17th Grand Master, H.R.H. Prince Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy, to recognize those who support philanthropic causes and have contributed to the benefit of mankind through good works, the arts and letters, sciences and humanitarian disciplines. The Holy See recognizes it as a Dynastic Order, although recipients need not be Roman Catholics. The Chancellery of the Order is based in Geneva. In 2001, the Grand Master appointed his son, H.R.H. Prince Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, whose ancestral namesake had been the first Grand Master of the Order, to serve as Grand Chancellor.
HISTORY BY JAMES C. RISK
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
by James C. Risk
The great body of the Orders of Chivalry can be divided into three groups for the purpose of historical consideration. The first and the oldest of these includes the Hospitalier and Crusading Orders. The best known example of the type is the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, generally called the Order of Malta. It was actually in existence shortly before the Crusades began. The distinguishing characteristic of the organizations in this group, however, is not so much their age or the continuity of their history, but the possession, at one time or another, of individual sovereignty. While this Sovereignty was frequently territorial during the formative periods of these Orders, it is entirely a legal concept today.
Knightly fraternities in the second grouping have been called the Great Orders of Chivalry. Founded in most cases by a Sovereign Prince, they survive in our time as the most signal honors that can be given by the country to which they belong. They contain only one class, comprising a very limited number of members. The oldest and most distinguished is the Garter in England. The Garter and the Elephant of Denmark are the only Great Orders in active use today. Among those recently extinct, or at any rate no longer recognized by the country of their origin, are the Golden Fleece of Spain and Austria and the Annunziata of Italy. The third category contains the Orders of merit, awarded for a variety of services in either a civil or military capacity. The best known of the distinctions in this group is the Legion of Honor of France. The Orders of merit are all divided into several degrees, or classes.
In view of the various upheavals that have shaken the civilized world in almost 800 years since the Order of Malta appeared in Palestine, it is remarkable how little interchange there has been between any of the members in the categories just described. Orders have died or been forgotten without formal abolition but few have changed their basic characteristics in a way that would permit their moving from one group to another. One of the outstanding exceptions to the rule is the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, until 1946 the highest ranking award for merit in the hands of the Italian Crown. Although an unusual combination of two aristocratic institutions, joined together in the 16th Century, it survived the French Revolution to become a democratic Italian distinction resembling the French Legion of Honor. When King Humbert II left Italy in 1946, and the Order ceased being used, it could claim a longer pedigree than any other in the class in which it then found itself. Such historical agility is bound to the student. The nature of the insignia makes the acquisition of good specimens a real challenge to the alert collector. For this reason I feel that a discussion of the Order and the evolution of its distinctive Badge will be of interest to the readers of the Review.
I will not devote any particular attention to the early history of the two Orders of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. St. Maurice has long been regarded as the Patron of the House of Savoy. When Amadeus VIII, a widower stricken in years, retired to the Monastery of Ripaglia near Lake Geneva in 1434, he gathered a small group of similarly circumstanced old gentlemen to keep him company. On October 16 of the same year he formed them into a regular company he called the Knights of St. Maurice. The new Knights were hermits living a largely religious and retired life rather than active military men. They wore gray robes carrying a white cross in cloth, each arm of which was "trifoliate" at the end. This became the distinctive Cross of St. Maurice and later appeared on quite a number of coins issued by the rulers of Savoy. The attempt of Amadeus VIII to spend his last days in quiet contemplation was interrupted by his election to the Papacy, an office he later resigned. The Order he founded does not seem to have had a particularly active existence after his death in January, 1451.
During the latter part of the 12th Century, an Hospitaller Order appeared in the Holy Land named after St. Lazarus, the Patron of Lepers. As long as the Crusaders were able to maintain themselves in Palestine, the Knights of St. Lazarus devoted their efforts to aiding the victims of leprosy. The Knights of St. Lazarus went back to Europe when Islam finally forced the Christians from northern Africa. Unlike the Order of Malta they were not able to found a territorial state of their own. The individual members rendered honorable service in leper hospitals in the next three hundred years but the Order gradually disintegrated and fell into disrepute.
By the middle of the 16th Century both Orders had a very tenuous existence. At that time, however, a new spirit began to animate Catholic Europe. The Church had reeled under the blows dealt by the Protestant Reformation for almost a hundred years. Now she showed such signs of vigor that a movement known as the "Counter Reformation" inspired both the Church and the Catholic Princes. At the same time the danger always implicit in Islam had become a very pressing one. The coast of Italy and Mediterranean Europe were ravaged by Turkish and Mohammedan Corsairs. At this juncture Emmanuel Philibert, one of the strongest members of the House, became Duke of Savoy. As an Italian Catholic Prince and able soldier, he was naturally interested in preventing the spread of the Reformation within his dominions and deeply concerned about the devastation caused by the activity of the Corsairs. In the interest of combating the spread of Protestant doctrine he revived the Order of St. Maurice, whose Knights were to found hospitals and act as missionaries of the Counter Reformation. His project received the Blessing of Gregory XIII on September 16, 1572. Meanwhile the Order of St. Lazarus had come to life. Emmanuel Philibert reached an agreement with the Grand Master of the organization. The Pope ratified it by a Bull dated November 13, 1572, conferring the Grandmastership of the Order on the Duke of Savoy.
The Knights of the united fraternity were to give excellent service against the Turks. The Order had two galleys, the "Piemontessa" and the "Margarita," in operation the next year, following the naval example set by the Knights of St. John. As the Turks were gradually forced back into Asia Minor during the next century, the purely military activities of "l’Ordine Mauriziano," as it was often called, were replaced by the building and operation of Hospitals in strategic parts of Piedmont. This remained its principal activity until the French Revolution intervened to turn 18th Century Europe upside down after 1792. When Charles Emmanuel IV was forced to retire to the island of Sardinia in 1796, the Order went with him. Shortly after Victor Emmanuel I’s restoration to the throne in 1815 several important changes were instituted, indications of even greater ones to come. Before proceeding any further, it will be necessary to explain just what kind of organization the Order was before 1815.
During the period just mentioned, the Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus had much in common with the Order of Malta, except that the Grand Master was primarily Sovereign Ruler of a compact North Italian Duchy, later raised to the dignity of a Kingdom. It was a State within a State, with its own lands, internal civil and criminal administration and an Army and Navy, all controlled by dignitaries of the Order and independent of the other government in Piedmont. The members were divided into two classes, called Knights of the Great Cross and Knights of the Small Cross. They had to be of noble birth and request admission to the Order. After their claims had been accepted by the Council, they paid a fixed sum "in passage money" to the Treasury and had to serve five years in the Army or Navy of St. Maurice. Their lives had a semireligious character. Those who donated a sufficient amount of property to found a Commandery (a financially self supporting administrative unit) were called Commanders. The title did not represent a higher grade than that of simple Knight. They were merely administrators of a Commandery with special rights. Their eldest sons could inherit their Knighthood in the Order and eventually the Commandery, with the income attached to it. In the course of time the Order acquired a considerable amount of property although its actual independence of Savoy, whose King was Grand Master, naturally declined over the years as its functions became less military and more charitable in nature. Throughout this period the full title for the organization was long and impressive. It was, properly speaking, "The Sacred Religion and Militia of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus."
Victor Emmanuel I issued new Statutes on December 27, 1816. They made some concessions to changed times. While members continued to be divided into two grades, each Grand Cross and Knight could be either of Justice or of Grace. The former had to be noblemen of ancient lineage, maintaining something of the religious character of the earlier Knights. The latter could be admitted for distinguished services, largely of a military or diplomatic nature. At this time, too, we find the First Secretary of the Grand Magistracy emerging as the most important official in the Order responsible to the King for the appointments of new members. Further changes took place on December 9, 1831, Charles Albert added the actual grade of Commander to the Order. The new regulations took pains to explain that a Commander and the administrator of a Commandery were not one and the same thing. The latter had no right to the title as long as he remained a simple Knight. At the same time the grade of Grand Cross "with Grand Cordon" was established. Strangely enough the old Knights of the Grand Cross did not automatically become Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon. Many of them never received the new dignity. We have the curious spectacle of a subordinate body of Knights Grand Cross within the Order whose existence was based on earlier Statutes then abolished and who were not recognized by the revised regulations. They were left to disappear in the natural course of time.
As the 19th Century progressed the Kingdom of Sardinia, as the dominions ruled by the House of Savoy were called, became involved in the ground swell of the movement that led to the unification of Italy under one King. These events were reflected within the Order. Charles Albert was defeated by the Austrians in 1848 and abdicated in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel II, late to become King of all Italy. In a regulation dated March 16, 1851, the new Sovereign removed the distinctions between Knights of Grace and Justice. While the grades remained the same, the membership within each was now declared to be unlimited. The custom of allowing the Cabinet Ministers to recommend a fixed number of appointments to the Order each year was established in place of prescribing the number of Knights in each class. It was in this period that the Commanderies were abolished. All property reverted to the control of the Council of the Order. On November 28, 1855, a further momentous change took place. The number of grades was increased when Commanders of the First Class were added. A little over two weeks later, on December 14th, the Order was finally divided into five classes like the Legion of Honor. The grade of Officer was introduced between that of Commander, 2nd Class, and Knight. The last basic change in these arrangements took place on February 20, 1868. At that time the titles of Grand Officer and Commander were substituted for Commander of the First and Second Class. The membership of the first four classes was fixed at sixty for the Grand Crosses, one hundred and fifty for the Grand Officers, five hundred for Commanders and two thousand for the Officers, with no limit for the number of Knights. These figures did not include Knights of the Annunziata who had the Grand Cross by right, or foreigners. Between 1868 and 1946 the only significant regulations affecting the Order were those increasing the membership gradually over the years and limiting the pensions paid some of the Knights from the Treasury of the Order.
The original Badges worn by the Knights were made of cloth or silk until shortly after 1600 when the custom arose of making them in gold and enamel. When the two Orders were combined in 1572 the Cross of St. Maurice was subordinated to the green Cross of St. Lazarus. By the time it became customary to wear the insignia in enameled gold the relative size of the Crosses had been reversed. Seventeenth Century portraits indicate that the Cross of the Order must have looked very much as it still does, although the quality of the workmanship on pieces certainly declined in the interval. There has been less change in the insignia of this Order than in almost any other with which we are familiar. Even the Cross of Malta has been given a variety of embellishments over the years. The Knight’s Cross of "l’Ordine Mauriziano" worn by many of the members today must look very much as it always has for over three hundred years. While the higher grades eventually wore the Cross surmounted by a crown, no other changes in design were introduced.
Before the reforms of 1816 the Badge existed in two simple forms. The larger Grand Cross was worn around the neck hung first from a gold chain and then from a green ribbon. The smaller Cross was worn from the buttonhole of the coat. After 1816 the Grand Cross was provided with a Crown and was always worn around the neck from a broad dark green ribbon, resting centered on the breast. The Knight’s Cross was unchanged. There is one variety of Badge used in this period that remains a mystery. I have never seen it illustrated or described in any work dealing with the Order. The type was first brought to my attention while visiting the Capodimonte Palace the Royal Palace in Naples. It appears worn by the subjects of several early 19th Century portraits. The Badge in question is a Grand Cross, with the addition of a trophy of Arms above the crown. The only specimen I have seen belonged to the Archduke Ranier who died at an advanced age in 1913. This specimen is now in the Austrian Army Museum in Vienna, accompanied by a Star that probably dates from the 1850s. The only explanation I can offer for the Badge is that it may have been worn by the Grand Crosses of Justice between 1816 and 1831. The Grand Cross of Grace would then have been distinguished by the crown alone. I hope that further information may come to light as a result of my discussion.
Charles Albert’s addition of the degrees of Commander and Grand Cross with the Cordon, or Sash, in 1831, finally brings the insignia within practical reach of the Collector. The new Grand Cross was exactly like the old one, except that it was worn from a sash and not around the neck. The first Star of the Order is shown in the plate. Stars of this kind, with only the cross of St. Lazarus enameled, were replaced by the more familiar type some time in the 1840s or 1850s. The exact date when the first type ceased being used is not known. The Commander’s Cross was worn without crown until 1868 and resembled the Grand Crosses worn before 1816. Since the Knights were enjoined by the Statutes to wear the insignia at all times, on May 10, 1832 the King established a small cross surmounted by a Crown for use of the Commanders when wearing informal day dress. This was followed on October 26, 1838, by the addition of the "Catanella" or small chain of the Order for the use of the Grand Crosses in informal dress. The chain was made up of crowned ciphers of the King, alternating with plaquettes of green enamel and carrying a miniature crowned Badge at the end. It was to be worn from the buttonhole.
The further additions to the grades of St. Maurice in 1855 marked the appearance of the diamond shaped Star for the First Class Commanders car rying the Cross of the Order superimposed upon it. The Badge of this Class was surmounted by a crown, but the Commanders, Second Class, continued to wear theirs without the crown. The creation of the Officers in the same year was marked by the addition of a wreath in gold to the Knight’s Cross. The specimens illustrated date from 1858 and 1868 respectively. Finally, after 1868 the Commanders were given the same crowned Badge as the Grand Officers but did not wear a Star, while the wreath that marked the Badge of the Officers was replaced by a crown. Most of the insignia of the Order found today will be of this type. The early specimens shown here are from a private collection.
The fact that enamel is the predominant material in these Crosses and gold is present only in the form of an edge strap outlining the basic design makes their attribution very difficult. In my experience the enamel used on the older specimens has a rather rough, coarse appearance while the gold edge is relatively thick. The early commander’s Cross illustrated in this article is also enameled in gold, as a small chip indicates. More modern pieces are found enameled on copper with only the edging of gold. There are a few additional details, however, that the Collector can use as a guide. A large Cross without crown approximately 42 to 45 mms. in size is that of a Commander, 1832-1868. A small Cross with a heavy crown and nobbled arches is a Commander’s undress Cross, 1832-1868. The Badge of a Commander of the First Class prior to 1860 will also have this type of crown. The crowns of the Officer’s Crosses after 1868 will resemble the one shown on the Grand Cross in our illustration although, of course, smaller in size. The Stars of the First and Second Classes until 1878 are all of very fine workmanship and carefully pierced. After that date, while the workmanship is at first good, they are not pierced. The green enamel used on the St. Lazarus Cross before 1860 will generally be quite dark. It is rather light on more modern pieces. In my experience any Badge made between 1860 and 1870 is likely to show a definite fault in the green enamel of the St. Lazarus Cross below the surface. Flaking often results. In any case, all Badges of the Order are very susceptible to damage and must be handled with care if acquired in perfect condition. The color of the ribbon used has also changed radically. That accompanying the Grand Cross in the illustration is olive green.
During the early 19th Century it was quite a dark pine green. In the reigns of Umberto I and Victor Emmanuel III prior to 1914 it changed again to a harsh Kelly green. By the 1930s and 40s the color was often quite light in shade. It is difficult to find the colors of the latest version of the ribbons at all attractive.
In closing I will make brief mention of the actual condition of the Order as it now exists. The Italian Government has granted those who received it before 1946 the right to wear it without any restrictions. The hospitals and other charitable activities supported by the extensive properties and revenues of the old Order are still in operation. The largest of the hospitals is in Turin. It is one of the best and most modern in Italy. In former times any member of the Order who found himself sick, while in Turin, had a right to free treatment in this hospital. In the light of present conditions the story of this knightly fraternity shows that history is certainly not without some charming ironical touches. The Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus were given all the possessions of the Constantinian Order of St. George when the Kingdom of Naples became part of united Italy in 1861. Now in its own turn "l’Ordine Mauriziano" has fallen by the wayside, one of the unnecessary victims of the peculiar political aftermath of the last war. Yet the best traditions of three ancient institutions are still being carried on through charitable activities made possible by their accumulated resources. These very real contributions to modern social welfare can be traced directly to the great Hospitaller Orders which were among the most useful results of the Crusades.
James C. Risk, 1961
Editor’s Note:When Mr. Risk wrote this article in 1961 he was one of the few American citizens who had been decorated with the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus by H.M. King Umberto II of Italy while he was King in 1946. Following the death of the King in 1983, his son, H.R.H.Prince Victor Emmanuel of Savoy, became the 17th Grand Master of the Order and set about reviving and modernizing it by focusing on its traditional charitable and humanitarian purposes.Today there are 15 Italian Delegations of the Orders and 18 national and regional Delegations worldwide. Mr. Risk became the American Delegate of the Orders during the 1980’s until his resignation in 1997 when he became Delegate Emeritus. Mr. Risk now holds the grade of Knight Grand Cross of the Order and is the Chairman of the Board of the American Foundation of Savoy Orders, Incorporated, a New York not-for-profit 501(c)(3) tax exempt charity, which fosters the charitable work of the Savoy Orders in the United States.We are grateful to Mr. Risk for permitting the use of his article on our site.
HISTORY BY L. MENDOLA
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
by L. Mendola
A few knightly orders are particularly distinguished for their venerable antiquity and noble purpose. One of these is the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, a dynastic order of the Royal House of Savoy.
Until 1946, it was the highest-ranking award for merit in Italy. Although a unique combination of two aristocratic institutions, joined together in the sixteenth century, it became an Italian distinction resembling the French Legion of Honour and, in more recent years, it has been restored somewhat to its medieval role
Because the institution as it exists today results from the amalgamation of two medieval orders, it is worth considering the origins of each. If regarded from the point of view of its elder branch, the Order of Saint Lazarus, which is rooted in the era of the Crusades, the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus may claim a place alongside the oldest extant order of knighthood, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (today the Sovereign Military Order of Malta).
The Order of Saint Lazarus
A hospital for lepers had been established in Palestine sometime before 1100, perhaps around the same time as the Hospital of Saint John (circa 1070), and by 1148, a hospitaller brotherhood had appeared in the Holy Land named after Saint Lazarus, the Patron of Lepers. In these early years, the Order's Grand Master was usually a leper, as were many of the brothers.
One of the earliest surviving documents relating to the Order is the approval by King Louis VII of France, a few years later, of a feudal transfer to it. The first Grand Master known to us is a certain Hugues de Saint Paul, circa 1155.
In the mid-thirteenth century, the Order of Saint Lazarus was formally recognised as a military and hospitaller order by a Papal Bull which confirmed to it the religious rule of Saint Augustine. As long as the Crusaders were able to maintain themselves in Palestine, the Knights of Saint Lazarus devoted their efforts to aiding the victims of leprosy. Their heraldic symbol was an eight-pointed cross similar to the Cross of Malta but tinctured deep green (vert).
It was probably at some time in the thirteenth century that the Order became a military institution, and it seems to have been favored particularly by Pope Clement IV, though there is a curious dearth of historical documentation regarding its early activities. The Knights of Saint Lazarus went back to Europe around 1290, after Islam finally forced the Christians from Palestine and northern Africa. Unlike the Order of Malta, the Knights of Saint Lazarus were not able to found a territorial state of their own, although they established a number of commanderies and hospices in Western Europe, particularly in Sicily, Southern Italy and France, but also in Spain and elsewhere. In 1318 Pope John XXII granted them exemption from local ecclesiastical authority, making the Order dependent on the Holy See.
The individual members rendered hospitaller service over the next three centuries but, with the exception of a few prominent priories (such as that at Capua), the size and activity Order gradually diminished. It should be noted that, perhaps as early as the fourteenth century, the terms "lazaretto"and "lazar-house" had come to be used generically for any confinement house for patients suffering from communicable disease, and not every institution named for the Saint was, in fact, a hospice of the Order; it is therefore possible that the number of hospices belonging to the Order of Saint Lazarus has been inadvertently exaggerated by historians who presumed that all such institutions to appertain to the Order. (2)
Beginning in the latter decades of the fifteenth century, a series of Papal Bulls ceded the remaining patrimony and assets of the Order of Saint Lazarus to the Order of the Hospital. However, certain of the Bulls were not universally respected; this was particularly true in France, where resistance was so widespread that the Crown itself eventually acted against the effect of the Bulls. (3)
A Bull of 1517 recognised the Prior of Capua as Grand Master with authority over several monastic hospices, including that of Saint John of the Lepers, the conventual church of which still stands in Palermo.
Over the next five decades, various Bulls and Briefs followed. Most of these were an attempt to further partition the assets of the Order in various realms.(4) By 1572, the Order's commanderies in most of Italy found themselves under the leadership of the Milanese nobleman Gianotto Castiglione, who is referred to in some Italian histories of the Order as its "Grand Master." Some histories state that he willed the grand magistry to the Duke of Savoy, others that he negotiated it to him. Whether he had the legal right to do so remains open to debate, for it was not a dynastic order vested in him personally, although Papal diplomacy was certainly involved. The transfer of these commanderies was ratified with the Bull Pro Commissa, issued 13 November 1572, and the grand magistry of the Order of Saint Lazarus was formally conceded to Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy and his perpetual successors, and joined to that dynasty's Order of Saint Maurice. (5)
The Order of Saint Maurice
Saint Maurice has long been regarded as the Patron of the House of Savoy. An early Christian general of Rome's Theban Legion in Alpine Gaul, Mauricius was ordered by Maximian to quell a Christian rebellion circa 286. When he and his military companions refused to murder fellow Christians, they were executed themselves at Agaunum (now Saint Maurice) by Maximian, who later became Roman Emperor. The relics of Saint Maurice are kept at the Abbey of Saint Maurice in the Swiss town named for him, on the River Rhône south-east of Lake Geneva, where the Grand Master and knights of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus attend a ceremonial mass around the martyr's feast, the 22nd of September.
Widely venerated in Switzerland, Aosta and Piedmont, Saint Maurice is the patron of mounted knights, infantry and horses.
When Amedeo VIII, an aged widower, retired to the Monastery of Ripaglia near Lake Geneva in 1434, he organised a small group of older noblemen to keep him company. On October 16 of the same year he formed them into a company he called the Knights of Saint Maurice. The new knights constituted a religious brotherhood, though not a monastic order per se. They wore gray robes bearing a white cross in cloth, each arm of which was "trifoliate" at the end. This became the distinctive cross bottony of Saint Maurice and appears on a number of coins issued by the rulers of Savoy.
The attempt of Amedeo VIII to spend his last days in quiet contemplation was interrupted by his election to the Papacy as the anti-pope Felix V in 1439, a pontificate he resigned ten years later, recognising Nicholas V as the true Pontiff.. The Order he founded, which at first was little more than a noble confraternity, does not seem to have had a particularly active existence after his election as Pope, nor to have survived his death, as a cardinal of the Church, in January 1451.
By the middle of the sixteenth century, the Order of Saint Maurice had a very tenuous existence, if indeed it existed at all. (Not a single royal decree pertaining to the Order during this period is known to have survived.) At that time, however, a new spirit began to animate Catholic Europe. For almost a century, the Church had reeled under the blows dealt by the Protestant Reformation. Now she experienced a movement known as the "Counter Reformation." At the same time, the danger always implicit in Islam had become a very pressing one. The coast of Italy and Mediterranean Europe were ravaged by Turkish and Muslim corsairs.
At this juncture Emanuele Filiberto, one of the strongest members of his dynasty, became Duke of Savoy. As an Italian Catholic sovereign and able soldier, he was interested in preventing the spread of the Reformation's political influence within his dominions, though the House of Savoy had always demonstrated a particular tolerance for persecuted, and therefore less influential, religious minorities such as the Waldensians and Jews. In truth, he was far more concerned about the effect on commercial activity caused by the marauding corsairs, but in the interest of combating the spread of Protestant influence in the politically and strategically vulnerable Savoy realm, he revived the Order of Saint Maurice, whose knights were to found hospitals and act as missionaries of the Counter Reformation. The Order also included a special clerical grade.
With the Bull Cristiani Populi of 16 September 1572, Pope Gregory XIII recognised a religious rule for the Order of Saint Maurice. He also recognised, in perpetuity, the succession to the grand magistry through the heads of the House of Savoy. (6)
The Order Before 1815 Two months later, the Order of Saint Maurice was amalgamated to the Order of Saint Lazarus with the Bull Pro Commissa. (5) Emanuele Filiberto called a chapter general at Nice in 1573, at which he accepted a number of knights of Saint Lazarus into the newly-amalgamated Order. He instituted the first Statutes of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus and founded the Hospital of Saint Maurice in Turin, which would be the first of many. He then set about pursuing his more immediate political goal, that of combating Muslim military and pirate activity in the Mediterranean. According to tradition, he would not have been the first member of his dynasty to do so. A legend was spawned, long after the alleged event took place, that one of Emanuele Filiberto's predecessors had assisted the Order of Saint John at one of the battles of Rhodes. Although the story is not supported by historical facts, it has been advanced to explain the allusive meaning of the Savoy's motto and battle cry FERT, Fortitudo eius Rhodum tenuit, and their use of a coat of arms (gules a cross argent) identical to that of the Order of Malta. (7) The knights of the united fraternity were to give excellent service against the Turks. The Order had two galleys, the "Piemontessa" and the "Margarita," in operation within the year, following the naval example set by the Order of Malta. A closer analogy may be made to the Order of Saint Stephen of Tuscany, a dynastic institution likewise enlisted in the naval wars of the Mediterranean, and viewed by the Papacy in the same light as the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. As the Turks were gradually forced back into Asia Minor during the next century, the purely military activities of the "Ordine Mauriziano," as it is still often called, were replaced by the building and operation of hospitals in strategic parts of Piedmont. This would remain its principal activity for the next few centuries. At first, members were divided into two classes, called "knights of the great cross" (i.e. grand cross) and "knights of the small cross" (i.e. knights). They had to be of noble birth and request admission to the Order. After their petitions had been accepted by the Council, they paid a fixed sum "in passage money" to the Treasury and had to serve five years in the Army or Navy of Saint Maurice. Their lives had a semireligious character. Those who donated a sufficient amount of property to found a commandery (a financially self supporting administrative unit) were called commanders "of Giuspatronato," and their eldest sons could inherit their knighthood in the Order and eventually the commandery, with the income attached to it. In certain respects, the Order remained a state within a state, with its own lands and internal civil administration controlled by dignitaries of the Order and independent of the other Piedmontese of government. In the course of time the Order acquired a considerable amount of property, although its actual independence of Savoy, whose King was Grand Master, naturally declined over the years as its functions became less military and more charitable in nature. The military service requirement was abolished, though in its memory the practice of rendering passage money was not. During this period the full title of the organisation was, properly speaking, "The Sacred Religion and Militia of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus." In the meantime, the House of Savoy gained in importance. Vittorio Amedeo became King of Sicily in 1713. Though he spent little time there, preferring Turin to Palermo, he bestowed the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus upon a number of Sicilian noblemen. The Sicilian Crown was exchanged for that of Sardinia seven years later, but Turin remained the capital of the Savoyard dominions and the seat of the Order. The stability of the Kingdom and the Order was secure until the French Revolution intervened. Carlo Emanuele IV was forced to retreat to the island of Sardinia in 1796, where he abdicated in favor of his brother, Vittorio Emanuele I, in 1802. The Order, of course, went with him to Sardinia. Its assets, seized by the French, were restored upon the Royal Family's return to Turin. Though the dynasty had survived the war, the times were changing, and with them the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.
Modernization of the Order Vittorio Emanuele I issued new Statutes on 27 December 1816. These made some concessions to the times. While members continued to be divided into two grades, each grand cross and knight could be either of Justice or of Grace. The former had to be noblemen of ancient lineage. The latter could be admitted for distinguished services, largely of a military or diplomatic nature. Further changes took place on 9 December 1831. Carlo Alberto, one of the most remarkable and democratic monarchs of the nineteenth century, added new grades, such as that of knight grand cross "with Grand Cordon." Strangely enough, the old knights of the grand cross did not automatically become knights grand cross with Grand Cordon; many of them never received the new, higher, dignity. To this day the highest rank of the Order remains "knight grand cross with Grand Cordon," there being no simple "knights grand cross." Clerical grades were abrogated. Regulations establishing a new military uniform for the Order were decreed in 1837. The Medal of Saint Maurice was instituted in 1839 to reward knights of the Order for long military service. The Italian Republic still confers this medal, it being one of the few decorations of the Kingdom's orders of knighthood that was not suppressed in Italy after the fall of the monarchy. (However, it no longer has any affiliation with the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.) As the nineteenth century progressed the Kingdom of Sardinia took a leading role in the ground swell of the "Risorgimento" movement that eventually led to the unification of Italy under one King. These events were reflected within the Order. Carlo Alberto was defeated by the Austrians in 1848 and abdicated in favor of his son Vittorio Emanuele II, later to become King of all Italy. In a regulation dated 16 March 1851, the new Sovereign removed the categories of grace, justice and profession and certain high offices. While the existing ranks remained, the membership within each was now declared to be unlimited. The custom of allowing the Cabinet Ministers to recommend a fixed number of appointments to the Order each year was established in place of prescribing the number of knights in each class. It was in this period that the hereditary commanderies "giuspatronato" were abolished, supplanted by the simple rank of knight commander. All such property reverted to the control of the Council of the Order. On 28 November 1855, a further momentous change took place. The number of grades was increased when Commanders of the First Class were added. A little over two weeks later, on 14 December, the Order was finally divided into five classes like the Legion of Honor. The grade of knight officer was introduced between that of commander, Second Class, and knight. By this date, the Order had clearly assumed the essential character of an order of merit rather than a traditional order of chivalry which existed as a nobiliary body. However, the Order continued to maintain hospitals and schools in Piedmont, and to hold its religious services at basilicas with which it had traditionally been associated.
The Order in the Kingdom of Italy Vittorio Emanuele II became King of Italy in 1861. He founded the Order of the Crown of Italy in 1868 following the annexation of Venice, and in the following year placed control of this new Order with the Council of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. The last basic change in the ranks took place in 1868. At that time the titles of knight grand officer and knight commander (commendatore) were substituted for commander of the first and second Class. The membership of the first four classes was fixed at sixty for the knights grand cross, one hundred and fifty for the grand officers, five hundred for commanders and two thousand for the officers, with no limit for the number of knights. These figures did not include supernumerary knights, such as knights of the Order of the Annunciation, who had the grand cross by right, or foreigners. Between 1868 and 1907 the only significant regulations affecting the Order were those increasing the membership gradually over the years and limiting the pensions paid some of the knights from the Treasury of the Order. Among the orders bestowed in the Kingdom, the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus enjoyed precedence immediately following the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation. Several relevant decrees of this period are worthy of mention. Royal Decree 4851 of 24 January 1869 governs the possible divestiture (attainder) of a knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus or the Order of the Crown of Italy, notably for cases of treason and serious felony. Regulations governing the procedures for bestowal of these two orders were issued as magistral decrees on 17 March 1878, and 3 December 1885, amended with Royal Decree 312 of 11 June 1896. By 1900, though its structure and ceremonies bore the mark of a Catholic dynasty, the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus was no longer the Roman Catholic institution it had been just a century earlier. On 17 November 1907, King Vittorio Emanuele III signed the Statuto Fondamentale (Fundamental Statutes) of the two orders, reiterating their ranks (i.e. knight, knight officer, knight commander, knight grand officer, knight grand cross decorated with grand cordon) and purpose. With Royal Decree 276 of 16 March 1911, His Majesty modified some rules for bestowal of the dynastic orders. An interesting provision is to be found in Article 4: "No one may be decorated with the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus who has not been decorated, for the period of at least one year, in an equal grade of the Order of the Crown of Italy." This practice fell into disuse with the same Sovereign's withdrawal from public life thirty-three years later. Royal Decree 377 of 25 January 1925 established the number of annual bestowals as follows: 6 knights grand cross with grand cordon, 27 knights grand officer, 96 knights commander, 243 officers, 642 knights. Motu proprio bestowals to grand officers, and bestowals to subjects resident abroad, foreigners and certain government officials were supernumerary.
The Order After the Monarchy The Italian Republic was founded by Referendum in 1946 and King Umberto II departed for exile, never to return to the land of his birth. He lived until 1983, never having abdicated. The hospitals and other charitable activities supported by the extensive properties and revenues of the old Order are still in operation, though according to the Italian Constitution of 1948 they were assumed by the Italian Republic, which manages them from the building in Rome that formerly housed the Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The largest of the hospitals is in Turin. The new state founded its own orders of knighthood, such as the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity (1947), and retained one of those of the Kingdom of Italy, namely the Order of Merit for Labor. It granted those who received the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus before 3 March 1951 the right to wear it in Italy without any restrictions, though knights' rights to places in the order of precedence at public ceremonies were abrogated. However, the same law (Number 178-1951), which founded the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, sought to "abolish" (or "suppress") the Savoy orders in Italy by outlawing them altogether. The Republic clearly had no right to abolish the incorporeal dynastic patrimony of the exiled King. (8). As King of Italy, Umberto II had the legal right to continue to bestow the orders of the Kingdom of Italy in exile, notwithstanding action by the Italian Republic. He also retained the right to bestow the dynastic orders and, as a lawful fount of honours, to create and recognise titles of nobility. The Italian constitution never stated that titles of nobility were outlawed, but simply that they were "not recognised," although the Consulta Araldica (College of Arms), formerly part of the Interior Ministry, was legally abolished. Following the death of King Umberto, his son and heir, Prince Vittorio Emanuele, acting on the King's testamentary designations, undertook to revitalize the Order to reflect the changes that had taken place in Italy during the last half century. Among other changes, he introduced three ranks for dames in the Statutes of 1985 and reintroduced the rank of hereditary commander "giuspatronato."(9) The Statutes of 1996, though substantively similar to those of 1985, emphasize charitable works, expressing the that the goal of the Order, while recognising merit, should be to concentrate on the charitable purposes for which it was founded in antiquity. To this end, the special office (though not an actual rank) is to be recognized of knights and dames of devotion who donate their time doing actual charitable works in hospitaller institutions. The Order, which is bestowed without respect to nationality or creed, is organised into various national and regional delegations and associations. The Italian Delegations presently include: Abruzzi, Campania and Basilicata, Emilia Romagna, Lazio outside Rome, Liguria, Lombardia, Piedmont and Val d'Aosta, Apulia, Rome, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria, Triveneto, The Foreign Delegations include: Argentina, Belgium, Hungary, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Savoy, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Ireland, the United States of America. The heraldic insignia of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is a green cross of eight points vert bearing at each point a roundel or between a cross bottony argent. The decorations are based on this design, with the Cross of Saint Maurice enameled white and that of Saint Lazarus emameled transparent green, suspended from a deep green ribbon. Notes 1) The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus should not be confused with the various organizations called the "Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem." Return to place. 2) See Giacomo Bascape, Gli Ordini Cavallereschi in Italia (Milan 1972), page 36. This book lists excellent bibliographical sources that the interested reader may wish to consult for further information on the topic of this article. Return to place. 3) This factionalism has fostered the belief that the Order of Saint Lazarus survived someplace in some form long after its grand magistry was ceded to the House of Savoy. The Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, founded by King Henry IV of France in 1607, accepted into its ranks the French knights of Saint Lazarus of certain extant French knight commanderies who had chosen not to be affiliated with the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. The Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was finally abolished in 1830. Return to place. 4) In the interest of brevity, the author has mentioned only those Bulls and decrees most important to the history of the Order. However it should be observed that the extensive records retained by the Vatican Secret Archive, the Archive of State of the Province of Turin, and the Archivio Centrale dello Stato (at Rome) are invaluable to serious students of this topic, especially those in search of information concerning particular periods of the Order's history. Return to place. 5) The heading of Pro Commissa is Bulla Gregorii Papae XIII: Qua Militia Hospitalis Sancti Lazari Hierosolymitani ReligioniSancti Mauritii unitur, ac annectitur. Return to place. 6) The heading of Cristiani Populi is Bulla Gregorii Papae XIII: Institutionis Militae, ac Religionis Sancti Mauritii in Emanuelem Philibertum Ducem Sabaudiae, successoresques suos, facta collatio. Return to place. 7) Domenico Guadagnini and others refute the very possibility of the military feat usually attributed to Amedeo V, who died long before the battles of Rhodes. They suggest, however, that the confusion may result from a simple misinterpretation of the historical facts; Amedeo VI was in the Holy Land in 1366 and 1367, when he fought alongside the knights of the Order of Saint John. The coat of arms mentioned had been used much earlier, and appears in certain seals and manuscripts of the thirteenth century. Return to place. 8) Because the Statuto and certain other documents treat the two orders as the same kind of entity, even placing them in part under the same administration, some legislators argued for the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus being a national order rather than a dynastic one. They also advanced the thesis that an independent dynastic institution should not have required that its candidates first belong to a state order (as in Article 4 of the Decree of 1911). However, a close reading of the Statuto makes it clear that, while unitary offices such as the First Secretary were established for convenience, entities such as the Giunta Mauriziana were retained, thus guaranteeing the preservation of the two orders as separate institutions. Return to place. 9) These testamentary designations included, among other things, the dynasty's donation of the Shroud of Turin to the Holy See. Return to place.
Bibliography and Acknowledgements While a few details may appear here for the first time in the English language (notably the information concerning the Order of the Crown in Article 4 of the decree of 1911), very little contained in this article is truly original. Most of this information has been drawn from published Italian sources. For their objectivity and modern point of view, the author is indebted to Domenico Guadagnini's Storia degli Ordini Equestri (Venice 1925) and Giacomo Bascape's Gli Ordini Cavallereschi in Italia (Milan 1972). Among the better known seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century works consulted were those by Taroni, Ricci, Cibrario, Strappezzi, Rossetti and Tioli. Also consulted were several decrees and letters of bestowal from the eighteenth century. For his assistance, the author expresses his gratitude to Professor James Risk, Delegate Emeritus of the American Delegation of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. Special thanks also to Commendatore Giovanni Angiolini, former member of the Chamber of Deputies, for his information on the legal aspects of the Italian legislation pertaining to the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. He also wishes to express his gratitude to the patient staffs of the Archivio Centrale dello Stato at Rome-EUR and the Vatican Secret Archive. The kind staff of the Archivio di Stato of the Province of Turin is to be commended for their special effort in tracking down works which were not to be found in the places indicated by the catalogues and indices. (c)1997 L. Mendola. Illustration and photography by the author. STATUTES OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS Statutes of the Dynastic Orders of the House of Savoy
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus HISTORICAL SYNOPSIS The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is a Dynastic Order of the Royal House of Savoy. It was established in 1572 by authority of Pope Gregory XIII in two Papal Bulls issued that year which united two existing Orders of Knighthood, the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem and the Order of St. Maurice.
The Order of St. Lazarus (1060 - 1572) The Order of St. Lazarus has its origins in the Hospital of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, situated outside the walls of that city, where lepers were cared for by Armenian monks whose devotions followed the rule of St. Basil of Caesarea.About the year 1060, Lay Brothers formed a congregation and served in this hospital, assisting lepers throughout the Holy Land whenever their services were needed. In this highly dedicated mission the Brother Superior himself was often a leper, and many of the Lay Brothers suffered from leprosy. The congregation did not have military responsi bilities until 1200, when such duties became necessary for self-protection. In April, 1254, the mission of these Lay Brothers received official recognition by a Papal Bull which confirmed them as members of a Hospitaller and Military Order. In August, 1265, another Papal Bull required that all lazarets (hospitals for persons suffering from leprosy) be placed under the authority of the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. The Order benefited from the patronage of many Sovereigns and Pontiffs of the time, particularly Clement V, the first of the Popes in Avignon, in 1305. Compelled to leave the Holy Land in 1291, the Order settled in the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, and in the Kingdom of France, then ruled by King Philip IV. The Order eventually experienced a period of decline as it suffered the loss of its possessions and rivalries for leadership. During the Fifteenth and part of the Sixteenth centuries, its headquarters was the St. Lazarus Hospital near Capua. Attempts at unification with other Orders, by Popes Pius II and Sixtus IV, did not succeed until 1572, when Pope Gregory XIII joined it with the Order of St. Maurice. The French branch of the Order of St. Lazarus refused to comply, only to find itself united, in 1607, with the Order of Notre Dame of Mount Carmel by King Henry IV of France. The Order of Notre Dame of Mount Carmel and St. Lazarus of Jerusalem was officially abolished in 1830 by King Charles X of France and by the Holy See. “Orders of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem” which were subsequently founded by private initiative lack the prerequisite fons honorem, and are neither approved nor recognized by the Vatican.
The Order of St. Maurice (1434-1572) The Order of St. Maurice was founded in 1434, in Ripaille, by Count Amadeus VIII of Savoy, who later became the first Duke of Savoy. Shortly after, in 1439, the Duke was elected as an anti-Pope by the Fathers of the Council of Basel, whereupon he took the name of Pope Felix V. He abdicated in 1449, after recognizing the authority of Pope Nicholas V in Rome. The purposes of the Order of St. Maurice were to serve God, to lead a monastic life, and to assist in the affairs of the State. The Order experienced periods of inactivity until 1572, when Pope Gregory XIII recognized it as a military-religious Order of Knighthood. The Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus (since 1572) The combined Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus was created in 1572, when Gregory XIII, by means of two Papal Bulls, sanctioned the annexation by the Order of St. Maurice of the Italian Commanderies of the Military Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. The Grand Mastership of the combined Order was bestowed upon Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy and his male descendants. The new Order adopted the rule of St. Augustine, already observed by the Knights of St. Maurice, and included among its objectives, the defense of the Holy See. The combined Order prospered from the support of the House of Savoy and the Papacy. It was regarded with such high esteem that many European Sovereigns urged their more illustrious noblemen to seek admission. Over the centuries the Order was successful in many areas for the good of mankind and in extending its secular powers. In 1868 the first King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II, reformed the Order to more closely resemble an Order of Merit, with equally illustrious prestige. When the reign of the House of Savoy ended in 1946, and the King, Umberto II, left Italy to go into exile, he took with him, as hereditary Grand Master, the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus, and continued to bestow it from abroad. Thus, the Order continued to be conferred upon Cardinals, Sovereigns, and Heads of State, and was also received by high ranking Italian government officials. The Holy See continued to recognize the King as Grand Master of the Order, its dynastic nature, and its historic achievements. King Umberto II died in exile on March 18th, 1983. The Grand Mastership of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus passed by hereditary right to the King’s son, Prince Victor Emmanuel, who became the Head of the Royal House of Savoy on the death of his father. The Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus continues to flourish as a Catholic Dynastic Order, bestowed by a legitimate Prince, Victor Emmanuel of Savoy, the seventeenth of his family to serve as Grand Master, in a succession recognized by the Holy See. Vésenaz, October 2000 Robert Matossian Cav. Gr. Uff. OSSML STATUTES VICTOR EMMANUEL by the Grace of God, Duke of Savoy, Prince of Naples, Head of the Royal House of Savoy by the Grace of God and by hereditary right, XVII Grand Master of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus Our August Parent, H.M. King Umberto II, decreed that the Statutes of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus, a dynastic Order of Our House of Savoy, instituted by the Supreme Pontiff Pope Gregory XIII by Papal Bull on September 16 and November 13, 1572, be amended so as to reflect the constitutional changes that had occurred in Italy. To which ends, and in conformity with the wishes of Our August Parent, We, his successor as Head of the House of Savoy, ordered some initial modifications to be made to the Statutes in June, 1985. We now deem it opportune to further amend the Order’s purposes and structure, so that they may be in conformity with the changing times and circumstances. Let it hereby be known, that by Motu Proprio and by Magisterial Authority, we decree as follows:
Article 1 The Order’s purposes are both humanitarian and philanthropic. These objectives, which were established at the time the Order was founded, were later expanded, but, nevertheless remain constant even in our own time. Moreover, the Order continues to recognize those who make significant contributions to science, literature, the arts, industry, trade, scholarship and research, the liberal arts, the professions, public service, and other worthy fields of endeavor, which bring honor and greatness to the House of Savoy and benefits to humanity. Article 2 Knights of the Order are divided into the following five grades: Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon Grand Officers Commanders Officers
Dames of the Order are divided into three grades: Dames Grand Cross with Grand Cordon Dame Commanders Dames
Article 3 By magisterial decree, there may be established for worthy recipients an Honorary Commandery of Jus Patronatus, with corresponding titles of Commanders of Honor Jus Patronatus. Article 4 A limited number of Knights or Dames of Devotion may be appointed among Members of the Order. Such members will have already demonstrated particular dedication to the Order and shall undertake, by solemn vow, renewable on an annual basis, to serve the Order with special commitment, and consistent with the Order’s original purposes, to perform works of a humanitarian nature in the social, medical or charitable spheres. Article 5 Admission to the Order, regardless of the nationality of the candidate, shall be either by Magisterial Motu Proprio, or based upon the recommendation of the Council or the Commission of the Order. The annual quota for admissions shall be limited to three Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, one Dame Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, six Grand Officers, twelve Commanders, and eight Dame Commanders. There shall be a category of Devotees of Merit with medals in gold, silver and bronze, which shall be composed of individuals who, while not members of the Order, have made commitments to perform charitable works for the Order, or who have already demonstrated, through their charitable works, a particular affinity for the Order. Article 6 Admission to the Order shall be effective upon registration of a Decree of Nomination at the Chancellery of the Order. Prior thereto, candidates shall refrain from wearing the Order’s insignia. Article 7 The insignia of the Order shall consist of a white enamel Cross of Saint Maurice superimposed on the emerald green Cross of Saint Lazarus. The insignia of Devotees of Merit shall consist of a medal with the Cross of the Order in relief. Article 8 The insignia of the grades of the Order are described in Appendix A annexed hereto which is incorporated herein by reference and made a part of these Statutes. Article 9 Members of the Order may wear its ceremonial robe only with prior approval requested or authorized by the Grand Chancellor and only for religious ceremonies. The ceremonial (church) robe is described in Appendix B annexed hereto which is incorporated herein by reference and made a part of these Statutes. Article 10 The Grand Master of the Order is Supreme Head of the Grand Magistry, and administers the Order through the following: The Council, the Commission, the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Treasurer, and the Grand Prior of the Order. Article 11 The duties which are the responsibility of the Council of the Order are as follows: To advise, whenever requested, on the establishment and application of the Order’s statutes and rules; To administer the Order’s properties and assets; To propose the acceptance of candidates applying for admission to the Order; To advise on administration of the Order and to make recommendations to the Grand Master
concerning the nomination of Delegates and Vice-delegates, who shall be vested with national or regional responsibilities; 5. To provide advice and recommendations on other matters as may arise. Article 12 The Council of the Order is composed of: the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Treasurer, the Grand Prior and six other councilors nominated by the Grand Master, from among the Order’s Knights and Dames Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, its Grand Officers, its Commanders, its Dame Commanders, and its Knights or Dames of Devotion. Each council member shall serve for a three-year term, which may be extended for two additional non-renewable periods of not more than three years each. The Grand Master shall appoint two members of the Council to serve as President and Vice President. The Offices of President of the Council of the Order, Grand Chancellor, Grand Treasurer and Grand Prior are bestowed by the Grand Master and are conferred for an indefinite period. Holders of these titles have the right to be addressed as “Excellency.” Article 13 The Grand Chancellor shall have the responsibility of submitting reports to the Council. The President and the Council may designate to one or more Councilors the responsibility of investigating or taking action as to matters upon which the Council may deliberate. The Council shall elect, from among its members, a Secretary, whose task it will be to record the minutes of its sessions. Article 14 Notices of meetings of the Council shall be sent upon the initiative of the Grand Master, the President, or the Vice President, and by prior arrangement with the Grand Chancellor. Notices of meetings must be received not later than fifteen (15) days prior to the dates on which the meetings are scheduled to be held. Except in special cases, meetings of the Council shall be held at the Chancellery of the Order. A quorum consisting of at least four members of the Council, including the President, in attendance, shall be required in order to conduct the business of the Council. Article 15 The Commission of the Order shall consist of five members appointed on recommendation of the Council and by Magisterial decree. Each member of the Commission shall serve for a three year term, which may be extended for two additional non-renewable terms of not more than three years each. The Grand Master shall appoint two members of the Commission to serve as President and Secretary. A quorum consisting of at least three members of the Commission including the President, in attendance, shall be required in order to conduct the business of the Commission. Article 16 The duties of the Commission are to verify that candidates proposed for admission to the Order conform to the standards established in its Statutes and Rules. The Commission’s reports and recommendations concerning proposals for admission to the Order, regardless of whether these proposals have been approved, shall be presented by the Grand Chancellor to the Grand Master. Decrees of admission shall explicitly set forth the Commission’s favorable recommendations, except in cases of admission by Magisterial Motu Proprio. Article 17 In special cases, the Commission may deliberate and decide upon matters that are normally the responsibility of the Council. In such cases the Council must ratify such deliberations and decisions at its next meeting. Article 18 The Grand Chancellor is chief administrator of the Chancellery of the Order. He shall be custodian of the Seals of the Order. These shall be affixed, in his presence, to all Magisterial and Council decrees; he shall countersign all Magisterial decrees of admission to the Order signed by the Grand Master; he shall report to the Grand Master on the deliberations of the Council and of the Commission, and he shall ensure that these contain nothing inappropriate or offensive to the Grand Master or to the dignity and interests of the Order. He shall further ensure that all documents concerning the Order are diligently preserved in the Order’s archives; he shall safeguard and defend the rights and privileges of the Order and shall act as it’s legal representative. He shall be responsible for supervising the ceremonial activities of the Order. Article 19 The Grand Treasurer shall supervise every aspect of the administration of the Order’s properties and holdings. To this effect, he shall ensure that all books of account and ledgers shall be accurately and diligently maintained. He shall direct the collection of all monies due to the Order and shall make recommendations to the Council on matters he deems necessary to improve the administration of the Order. The Grand Treasurer shall report to the Council on all budgetary matters, on accounts presented by financial advisors and custodians of the Order’s funds, on general administrative matters, and on disbursement of balances remaining at the close of each fiscal period. In consultation with the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Treasurer shall determine the temporary uses of disposable funds. Article 20 The Grand Prior shall exercise the rights and prerogatives conferred upon him by Papal Bull pertaining to the Order. He shall supervise all matters pertaining to Divine Worship, as well as to the observance of the moral code of the Order. Article 21 A member whose conduct is lacking in honor and loyalty toward the Order and its governing principles, or towards the House of Savoy, shall be struck from the register of the Order and deprived of the right to wear the insignia and use the titles of the Order. Revocation of membership in the Order shall be effected by Magisterial Decree and a decision of the Council of the Order. Prior to reaching its decision, the Council shall, through its President, notify the member of its intention to revoke membership in the Order and the reasons therefor, and shall establish a deadline for receipt of a written response from the member. This procedure shall not be necessary if the allegation against the member is established by documents of indisputable authority or has been confirmed by court ruling.
APPENDIX A (Relating to the insignia of the Order’s Members and Devotees of Merit)
Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon. Sash: worn from the right shoulder to the left hip; made of emerald green silk, 100mm in width, fastened with a bow. To this is pendant a 67 mm wide white enameled botonnée Cross, edged in gold, superimposed on a transparent emerald green Maltese Cross. The Cross is surmounted by a gold royal crown measuring 42 mm across. Breast star: made of silver with eight groups of short, diamond-cut rays measuring 85 mm in diameter, superimposed with a 55 mm Cross of the Order. Miniature: a 13 mm miniature of the breast star is pendant from an emerald green silk ribbon. Rosette: a miniature of the breast star in the center of an emerald green 12mm wide rosette. Uniform ribbon: emerald green silk 37 mm in width, superimposed with three royal crowns in gold.
Grand Officer. Neck ribbon: emerald green silk, 50 mm wide from which a 55 mm Cross of the Order surmounted by a 38 mm wide royal crown is pendant. Breast star: silver with four groups of short diamond-cut rays, 75 mm in diameter, upon which a 41 mm Cross of the Order is superimposed. Miniature: a 16 mm miniature of the breast star from which a 13 mm emerald green silk ribbon is pendant. Rosette: a miniature of the breast star in the center of a 12 mm emerald green silk rosette. Uniform ribbon: a 37 mm wide band of emerald green silk with two royal crowns in gold superimposed.
Commander. Neck ribbon: emerald green silk, 50 mm wide, from which a 55 mm Cross of the Order surmounted by a 38 mm royal crown is pendant. Miniature: a 16 mm Cross of the Order surmounted by a gold royal crown pendant from an emerald green silk ribbon 13 mm wide, upon which is superimposed a single gold crown. Rosette: a gold royal crown at the center of a 12 mm emerald green silk rosette. Uniform ribbon: 37 mm wide emerald green silk surmounted by a gold royal crown, with the Cross of the Order with gold royal crown pendant. Uniform ribbon: a 37 mm wide band of emerald green silk.
Officer: Miniature: a 16 mm miniaturization of the Cross of the Order surmounted by a gold royal crown pendant from an emerald green silk ribbon 13 mm wide. Rosette: a silver royal crown at the center of a 12 mm emerald green silk rosette. Uniform ribbon: 37 mm wide emerald green silk ribbon with Cross of the Order with a gold crown pendant.
Knight: Miniature: a 16 mm miniature of the Cross of the Order pendant from an emerald green silk ribbon 13 mm wide. Rosette: a 12 mm wide emerald green silk rosette. Uniform ribbon: 37 mm wide emerald green silk ribbon with the Cross of the Order (without gold crown) pendant.
Dame Grand Cross with Grand Cordon: Sash: worn from the right shoulder to the left hip, made of 50 mm wide emerald green silk, ending in a bow from which is pendant a 55 mm wide Cross of the Order, surmounted by a 38 mm wide gold royal crown. Miniature: a 16 mm miniaturize of the Cross of the Order surmounted by a gold royal crown, suspended from an emerald green silk ribbon with a 13 mm wide bow with serrated fringe.
Dame Commander: Ribbon: a 37 mm wide emerald green silk ribbon in the form of a bow, from which a 41 mm Cross of the Order surmounted by a 16 mm gold royal crown is pendant. Miniature: a 16 mm Cross of the Order surmounted by a gold royal crown pendant from an emerald green silk ribbon with a 13 mm bow.
Dame: Ribbon: emerald green silk, 37 mm wide in the form of a bow from which a 41 mm Cross of the Order, without crown, is pendant. Miniature: a 16 mm miniature of the Cross of the Order, without crown, pendant from a bow of emerald green silk ribbon 13 mm wide.
Commander of Honor (Jus Patronatus): Neck Ribbon: the same as Commander. Breast star: a 55 mm Cross of the Order (without rays). Miniature: the same as Commander, but bearing a miniature of the breast star in lieu of the royal crown. Rosette: the Cross of the Order at the center of a 12 mm emerald green silk rosette. Uniform ribbon: 37 mm emerald green silk with the Cross of the Order at its center.
Knights and Dames of Devotion: A golden Savoy Knot is worn next to the insignia of their grade in the Order. Devotees of Merit: Ribbon: emerald green silk, 37 mm wide, from which a medal 32 mm in diameter is pendant. The medal bears a Cross of the Order, in relief, without enamel. On the reverse side, at the top, the words “Bene Merenti” are inscribed. A space below the inscription is provided for the recipient to engrave his or her name and the date of presentation of the medal. Miniature: a 13 mm emerald green silk ribbon, from which a medal 16 mm in diameter is pendant. Lapel Pin: a bow of 13 mm wide emerald green silk. Medals are of gold, silver or bronze. Gold-medal holders wear a gold star at the center of the bow; silver medal holders, a silver star at the center of the bow, bronze medal holders wear a bow without star.
APPENDIX B (Relating to Church ceremonial dress) The men’s church robe of the Order for all grades will be of crimson silk with white trim (collar and cuffs), a fabric Cross of the Order edged with yellow-gold silk embroidery, and a wide cordon ending in two tassels in front. Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, Grand Officers and Commanders of Honor (Jus Patronatus), wear an embroidered fabric breast star in accordance with their grade in the Order: the royal crown embroidered in gold for Commanders: in silver for Officers. Dames wear a black silk cloak and small black velvet collar with fine gold edging. On the left side there is sewn a Cross of the Order in fabric embroidered with yellow-gold silk edging. Geneva, October 10, 1996 Victor Emmanuel G. Balbo di Vinadio
THE NEW STATUTES The origins of the combined Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus derive from a Papal Bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII. At its inception, the Order reflected the political and religious concerns of the 16th Century. Therefore, its goals included both defense against Muslim military forces in the Mediterranean region and the “heretics” in Europe, as well as the care of those suffering from leprosy. By sending a fleet to patrol the waters of the Mediterranean, and by opening leprosariums and hospitals, the Order acquitted itself of both tasks with distinction. The French Revolution, the shock waves of which were felt throughout Europe from the fall of the Bastille through the Napoleonic Era, brought fundamental changes to European life and, indeed, to the very nature of the great Orders of Knighthood. The Orders of the House of Savoy were no exception. One of the results of this revolutionary period was that from the reign of King Carlo Alberto (1830-1848) onwards, the Orders were increasingly placed “on loan” to the State. Although this did not change their fundamental juridical status as belonging to the Sovereign (the Head of the Royal House of Savoy), the Orders were administered as though they belonged to both Crown and State. In due course, the gap between the rank of a public official and the grade to which he could hope to aspire within the Order began to narrow. Naturally, with the departure into exile of H.M. King Umberto II in 1946, this system changed. His Majesty continued to decorate individuals who had distinguished themselves, not only through their actions, but also through their complete loyalty to the Sovereign and to the Dynasty. Today, confronting circumstances that have again changed, it is an opportune time for the Order to revert to its original ideals and to rededicate itself in our modern social and historical setting to the purposes for which the two Orders (St. Lazarus and St. Maurice) were initially joined into one Order by the Pope. Of course, today it is no longer a question of defending the Faith “per se,” but rather those fundamental principles which constitute the common heritage of civilization in its noblest and most ecumenical attributes. The mission of the Order is, and must continue to be, to bring assistance, no longer just to those afflicted with leprosy, but to all those who suffer, whether from disease, war, or hunger. In practical terms, the Order embarked upon this route some years ago. Now, the Order must be structured to extend its activities to fulfill its humanitarian ideals. For this reason it is important that membership in the Order should be a matter of personal commitment on the part of each member to work to the best of his or her ability towards a common goal of aiding and comforting the suffering, thus emulating the spirit of chivalry that motivated the ancient orders of knighthood. In this respect, we recall the words written by a confrere in the Order and published in January 1995: “...We too carry the Cross, even if we are lay people. We try to carry it with dignity, dedicating ourselves to the works of the Order, ensuring that it will once again become a united effort fostering worthy causes, and not merely an empty display of vanity.” Article I of the Statutes has, accordingly, been rewritten to state: “The Order’s purposes are both humanitarian and philanthropic. These objectives that were established at the time the Order was founded were later expanded; but, nevertheless, remain constant, even in our own time. Moreover, the Order continues to recognize those who make significant contributions to science, literature, the arts, industry, trade, scholarship and research, the liberal arts, the professions, public service, and other worthy fields of endeavor, which bring honor and greatness to the House of Savoy and benefits to humanity.” The emphasis on humanitarian goals, however, does not diminish the Order’s other attributes. It is also worth noting that the words “granting” or “conferral” are no longer used; instead, one is “admitted” to the Order. The Order is aligning itself once again, with the values that have always been the guiding spirit of the great Orders of history, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, to name but one. To emphasize and facilitate the personal commitment of its members to the spirit and objectives of the Order, the new Statutes provide for the creation of: “a limited number of Knights and Dames of Devotion. Such members will have already demonstrated particular dedication to the Order and shall undertake, by solemn vow, renewable on an annual basis, to serve the Order with special commitment and with the Order’s original purposes, to perform works of a humanitarian nature in the social, medical or charitable spheres.” (Article 4). “Knights and Dames of Devotion will wear a golden Knot of Savoy next to the insignia of their grade.” Any such commitment to the Order must be specific and not merely general, in accordance with requirements set forth in published rules and regulations for Knights and Dames of Devotion. To confirm the principle that membership in the Order requires direct, personal involvement, a category of Devotees of Merit has been created. Such persons “...with medals in gold, silver and bronze, shall be composed of individuals who while they are not members of the Order, have made commitments to perform charitable works for the Order, or who have already demonstrated through their charitable works particular affinity for the Order.” (Article 5) This includes those who have not yet performed sufficient acts of merit, even if only by reason of their youth, to become full members of the Order, but who aspire to enter its ranks, or those who have already, in specific instances, contributed towards the Order’s goals. Other amendments to the Statutes are primarily concerned with form. For example, it is stated clearly that the robe of the Order may be worn: “...only with prior approval requested or authorized by the Grand Chancellor and only for religious ceremonies” (Article 9). Other amendments include the following new provisions covering correctly embroidered insignia for men’s robes: none for Knights, a crown embroidered in silver for Officers, and in gold for Commanders. Embroidery for the respective breast insignia for Grand Officers and Knights Grand Cross remain unchanged. This protocol should eliminate, or at least reduce to a minimum, the misunderstandings regarding precedence for procession, or for seating in church. Of greater significance however, is the introduction of a fixed number of members for admission to the Order’s higher grades; limited annually but not in the aggregate. To this effect, Article 5 stipulates: “The annual quota for admissions shall be three Knights Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, One Dame Grand Cross with Grand Cordon, six Grand Officers, twelve Commanders and eight Dame Commanders.” “Annual” means the period between one Chapter of the Order and the next. This limitation in numbers has been enacted so as to emphasize the degree to which membership in the Order, and above all in its higher grades, should reflect, as much the candidate’s desire and commitment to work for the Order’s goals, as the careful evaluation of his or her capabilities by the Grand Magistery. The Statutes of the Civil Order of Savoy have been confirmed with only minor amendments intended to both modernize them and to adapt them to specific circumstances. The Order remains the eminent recognition for those who: “...have by their long and diligent efforts, become outstanding members of society, or who have contributed greatly to the common good.” The Order’s nature is, therefore, fundamentally different from the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus and the Order of Merit of Savoy. Changes relating to the Order of Merit of Savoy are also primarily a matter of form. Article 1 no longer uses the appellation “Order of Civil Merit of Savoy”, but rather the “Order of Merit of Savoy”, a name that is known and in current use. Article 8 specifies that the robe of the Order can be worn, “...when expressly requested or authorized by the Grand Chancellor, for the Order’s own religious ceremonies, or for those of any other dynastic Order of the House of Savoy...” Finally, Article 9 states: “The Grand Master shall administer the Order through the Council of the Civil Order of Savoy.” The creation of the Cross of Merit of Savoy is of significant importance. It is intended to reward those who by their actions or deeds are deserving of recognition, but not to the extent that it would be possible for them to be awarded a knighthood. Comparison can be made between the Cross of Merit and the Medal of the Devotees of Merit of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. The Cross of Merit can also be conferred upon young people who, because of their youth, cannot qualify for entering the Order of Merit. The Crosses of Merit are conferred in two classes: gold and silver. Both resemble the Crosses of the Order, but without enamel. The modifications made to these statutes distinguish between the different purposes of the three Orders. Thus, the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus resumes its original role of “sacred militia,” a role it has played for centuries. The Civil Order of Savoy remains virtually the same as when it was conceived and created by H.M. King Carlo Alberto, a recognition of distinguished services in different intellectual fields. The Order of Merit of Savoy reaffirms its purposes of rewarding “special and specific acts of merit...” benefiting the Royal House of Savoy and towards its Dynastic Head. It is, therefore, impossible to establish any form of “hierarchy” between the three orders. Each has its own distinct character and pursues its own specific goals even if, as is well known, all three are untied in the observance of chivalric traditions and loyalty to the House of Savoy. THE GRAND MAGISTERY OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS VICTOR EMMANUEL Duke of Savoy Prince of Naples XVII GENERAL GRAND MASTER OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS By virtue of his Magisterial prerogatives Has issued the following decree; “For the purpose of conforming and adapting the administration of the Order to modern times and new objectives” LET NOTICE HEREBY BE GIVEN Of the following revisions to the Statutes of the Order: Article 12, paragraph 1: “twelve” councilors instead of “six”; Article 12, paragraph 3: The “title of Excellency”: the last sentence is deleted; Article 14, paragraph 2: “six” members instead of “four”; Article 16, paragraph 2: “... candidates regardless of whether they are approved, shall be presented to the Grand Master by the Grand Chancellor” Article 17: “... may deliberate directly on matters relative to paragraph 3 of Article 11, except such decisions must be ratified...” We charge the Grand Chancellor H.R.H. Prince Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy with the duty of implementing the provisions of this decree.” Signed at Geneva on October 30, 1999 SIGNED Victor Emmanuel of Savoy
INSIGNIAS AND ROBES OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS images
DEVOTEES OF MERIT OF THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS Devotees of Merit (Benemerenti) The designation Devotee of Merit is reserved for those who have made commitments to assist the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus by performing charitable works, and who have demonstrated an affinity for the Order. They are generally too young to become members of the Order, but may eventually be admitted to the Order after they have sufficiently demonstrated their interest and willingness to contribute. There are three categories of Devotee, with gold, silver, and bronze insignia. In 2002 the first Devotees of Merit of the American Delegation were awarded by the Grand Master to Stephen H. Acunto, Jr. and Adrian Benjamin Burke. plus images
THE ORDER OF SAINTS MAURICE AND LAZARUS
Guy Stair Sainty
The restoration of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus to the status of an Order of Chivalry of the Royal House of Savoy, from being (for a little less than one cen•tury) an Order of Military and Civil Merit, is the achievement of the present Grand Master, Crown Prince Victor-Emmanuel of Italy, Prince of Naples and Duke of Savoy. The conditions which had led to it being given as a reward for service to the Italian State ceased with the decision of the late King Umberto II to leave Italy for permanent exile. The recent renaissance of this great institu•tion has occurred since the deposition of the Savoy Dynasty, which had ruled in Northern Italy since the eleventh century. The decree of the Italian Republic which purported to suppress its continued award was illegal, as the Order was originally a Papal foundation, entirely outside republican jurisdiction.
Saint Maurice, Duke of Thebes, was the patron Saint of the House of Savoy and a Society of noble monks of that name had been founded on 13 February 1434, by Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy, to accompany him on his retreat from secular life to that of a hermit.1 Some writers have suggested that this association was a military Order, the precursor of the later Order of Saint Maurice, and that it survived until the period 1536-1559, when the territo•ries of the Duke of Savoy were occupied by the French. This "Order" (more properly "Noble Association"), however, was sup•pressed in 1439, shortly after the Duke's elec•tion as (anti) Pope Felix V.2 The Religious Military Order of Saint Maurice, which was created on 16 September 1572 by the Bull Christiani populi corpus of Pope Gregory XIII, at the request of Duke Emanuele-Filiberto of Savoy,3 was named to commemorate this more ancient association. As an Order of the Church under the Cistercian rule, it had nothing other than its name in common with the earlier institution. Indeed, while the original military con•fraternity was the creation of the Duke of Savoy, the new Order was a Papal foundation, with the Duke of Savoy and his successors invested by the Supreme Pontiff as "Magistrum Magnum" (Grand Master) in perpetuity.4 This Bull also granted the Grand Master the right to interpret, amend or correct the Statutes, thus legitimizing its use as an award for meritorious service and its recent restoration as an Order of Chivalry.
Within less than two months the Order's charac•ter was amended once more, by the concession to Duke Emanuele-Filiberto of the dignity of Master-General of the "militiam Sancti Lazari" and the union of the two institutions as one Order, by the Bull Pro commissa Nobis of 13 November 1572. Duke Emanuele-Filiberto had earlier entered into negotiations with the Prior of Capua (titular Master-General of the Order) of Saint Lazarus, to acquire the title of Master-General, along with the benefices of the Order and the adherence of its two hundred knights, but these discussions had proved abortive, so the Duke had approached the Holy See directly. The new "Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus of Jerusalem" acquired rights to all the Commanderies of the Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus situated in Italy and else•where (excluding those former possessions of the Order situated "in the Kingdoms and Dominions of" Philip II of Spain), effectively abrogating those provisions of the Bull of 1489 which had granted them to the Order of Saint John.5 The new foundation did not only acquire the ancient properties of Saint Lazarus but also its hospitaller mission and duty to provide naval protection against Moslem incursions in Italy. Despite the Papal direction that the knights of Saint Lazarus taking the Cross of the new Order should abandon the rule of Saint Augustine for the Cistercian, the new Order adopted the Augustinian rule, which was more appropriate to its functions. By an Apostolic Brief of 15 January 1573, the Pope provided that the Cross of Saint Maurice could be superimposed on that of Saint Lazarus - the green arms of the latter being placed between those of the white cross of Saint Maurice. By Magistral Letters Patent of 10 November 1619 and 2 June 1643 the knights were obliged to wear their badge whenever they appeared in public, as well as undertake various other religious observances; the knights had to attend confession and com•munion at Easter and on the Order's Saints days - that of Saint Maurice being 22 September, that of Saint Lazarus being 17 December.6 The history of the Order of Saint Lazarus has been the object of much speculation and invention, Caption particularly among the proponents of its mod•ern independent survival. The suggestion that it was founded in the second century, or by Saint Basil in the seventh (claims which appear for the first time in the seventeenth century), are fantastic theories with no contemporary documentary support and no basis in fact.7 The original institution was of relative unimpor•tance, established as a leper hospital associat•ed with and probably subordinate to the much larger and more significant Order of the Hospital of Saint John in Jerusalem; it was not included among any of the other crusader institutions named by the contemporary histo•rians William of Tyre or Jacques de Vitry. The first brothers who served in this hospital did not have any military responsibilities, as is proven by an act of King Louis VII of France granting the Order the Barony of Boigny in 1154, which says nothing of a military charac•ter. The first such functions were assumed in about 1200, for self-protection, but the small number of brothers, most of whom themselves suffered from leprosy, gave them little strategic value.8 It has been claimed that the Order's size eventually matched that of Saint John but this assertion is without merit and very little mention is made of the Hospitallers of Saint Lazarus in thirteenth century records. Its wealth was also greatly over-stated because of the mistaken belief that every institution bear•ing the name "Saint Lazarus" was connected with the Order.
The first instance of Papal recognition of the status of the brethren as members of an Order of Chivalry can be found in the Bull Cum a nobis petitur of 11 April 1254, which confirmed it as an Hospitaller and Military Order, under the rule of Saint Augustine. Of greater importance was the Bull Venerabilibus fratribus of 5 August 1265, which required that all leper hospitals should be put under the authority of the Order of Saint Lazarus and that they should be responsible to the Master-General of the Order ("Privilegium Fratrum Militum Hospitalis S. Lazari Hierosolymitani"). Over the next two centuries the Order benefited from sev•eral Papal Bulls confirming its status and privi•leges. The Order's work on behalf of lepers was unquestionably of importance, particularly at its Priory of Capua, as this disease was greatly feared and little understood during the middle ages. Although the Priory of Capua and the Commandery at Boigny maintained the ancient hospitaller mission, by the mid-fifteenth century the Order had become less effective elsewhere. By the Bull Cum solerti of 5 April 1489, Pope Innocent VIII ordered the suppression of the Order and its amalgamation into that of Saint John, returning it to the institution which had first nurtured it. This was confirmed in a further Bull (Laudibus et honore) dated one day later, giving the Grand Master of the Order of Saint John the authority to collect together the benefices and properties of Saint Lazarus.
These two Bulls proved difficult to enforce and, at the petition of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Aragon and Castille, the properties of the Order in Spain were absorbed into the terri•tories of the Episcopal Sees in which they lay or, when adjacent to properties of the Orders of Saint John, Santiago, and Calatrava, were granted to those Orders. Resistance in France to the Bull was particularly forceful and was supported at first by the Crown, King Charles VIII confirming the rights and privileges of the Order in disobe•dience to the Pope in 1490. Pope Julius II con•firmed the union with Saint John by the Bull Romani Pontificis of 5 July 1505, as did Pope Leo X in the Bull Dum continuus of 16 April 1514. In 1517, however, the latter partially reversed himself by re-establishing the Priory of Capua as the "Order of Saint Lazarus", naming the Prior as "Master-General" and granting him responsibility for the Hospital of Saint John of Leprosy in Palermo and the Hospital of Saint Agatha in Messina. The Emperor Charles V, in whose territories the newly restored Order lay, now attempted to recover the lands at Boigny for the Order, leading to a lengthy dispute which the French attempted to terminate in their favor by having the Parliament of Paris declare in 1547 that the Bull of 1489 did not have any effect in France (although it was clearly intended to have such effect). The Papacy was unwilling to submit to this attack on its powers and, by a further Bull Circumspecta Romani Pontificis of 1 July 1560, confirmed the extinction of the Order and its amalgamation into Saint John.9 The failure of the siege of Malta did not mark the final defeat of the Turks but was perceived as another event in the ongoing struggle against them. The Papacy continued to be seriously con•cerned about the Moslem threat to Southern Italy which was not removed until after the victory of Lepanto in 1571 while Barbary pirate raiders harrassed Christian shipping into the nineteenth century. Seeing the priory of Capua as more effective when independent from the knights of Saint John, who had suffered serious depreda•tions in the defense of Malta, Pope Pius IV was persuaded to reinstate the Order of Saint Lazarus in Italy, appointing the Prior of Capua "Master-General of the Hospital and Militia of Saint Lazarus", with the seat of the Order at Capua, and giving him the authority to defend the Hospital and its territories against the incursion of the enemies of Religion in the Bull Inter assiduas of 15 June 1565 ("contra Piratarum et infidelium Christianae Religionis incursionem"). Numerous new privileges were granted along with revised Statutes and reforms made of the habit and the cross.
While the position and authority of the Sovereign of Naples and Sicily, Philip II, was acknowl•edged, this Bull attempted to return to the con•trol of the new Master-General all the properties situated in England (which had been confiscated during the reformation), Spain and Flanders. Philip strongly objected, pointing out that there were no longer benefices of the Order of Saint Lazarus but properties attached to other Orders and institutions which would be deprived by the implementation of this Bull. The new Master-General, Giannotto Castiglione (Jeannot de Castillon), took such little interest in his new responsibility that he attempted to sell the Order, along with the two hundred knights and its possessions, to the Knights Hospitaller, but they refused as his price was too high, whereupon he entered into negotiations with the Duke of Savoy. Before any action could be taken the Pope died and was succeeded by (Saint) Pius V who, in Sicuti bonus Agricola of 7 February 1567, revoked the passages of the Bull concerning the properties in Spain and Flanders to which the Spanish King objected and many of the other privileges granted by his predecessor. Nonetheless he did confirm much of the Order's history and the titles of Master-General of the Prior at Capua. He did not submit to the King's demands to suppress Saint Lazarus altogether and Philip continued to protest to the Holy See until Pius's death in 1572. The new Pope, Gregory XIII, by uniting the Order of Saint Maurice with that of Saint Lazarus in 1572, substantially endowed the new Order but also left it with the legacy of a continuing dispute with the King of Spain. Although the Bull Pro commissa Nobis had excluded the benefices of the Order in the Spanish Dominions, it is apparent from a Bull of Pope Clement VIII of 9 September 1603 (Decet Romanum Pontificem) that Pope Gregory had subsequently included those properties under the rule of Philip II in a later grant to the new Order, and the reaction of Philip II was to forbid the wearing of the Order's habit within his territories. This prohibition was reinforced by Philip V in 1707. In return for these Papal privileges, the Grand Master was required to maintain two trireme galleys to defend the Church and, in 1573, he duly endowed the Order with 15,000 scudi raised on various of his personal estates and properties. The Grand Master of the new Order was given the right to invest those knights of Saint Lazarus who were prepared to submit to his obedience with the habit and cross of the new Order, thereby furnishing the Order with two hundred potential candidates for admission.
Emmanuel-Filiberto's first act as Grand Master was to call a Chapter-General of the Order at Nice, where in April 1573 he received an oath of loyalty from the knights of Saint Lazarus who were joining the new Order and from his own nominees. The full title of the Grand Master was now designated, fulsomely in Latin, as Totius Religionis et Militiae Sanctorum Mauritii et Lazari, Bethleem, Nazareth, Hierosolymitani, Ordini Sancto Augustini, Conventium; Hospitalium; domorum, praeceptorium atque priorum locorum omni•um citra et ultra mare, cis et trans Alpes, per universum Orbem, Humilis et Generalis Magnus Magister. This style was later modified to (in 1714), His Sacred Royal Majesty General Grand Master of the Sacred Religion and Military Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. Two years later, by letters patent of 13 and 25 October 1575, he declared the patrimony of the Order separate from the Duchy estates, a separation which was maintained until 1946.10 This patrimony was added to by various Popes: by a Bull of 15 June 1604 (Superna dispositione), in which twenty-four benefices, to be called Commanderies, were con•ceded to the Order. It later acquired the Abbey of Staffarda with one thousand three hundred and eighty-six hectares in 1750, the benefices attached to the Prebendary of San Michele and San Bernardino of Aosta (with the obligation to maintain a hospital there) in 1752, the benefices of the defunct Order of Saint Anthony of Vienne situated in Savoy in 1776 (with five hundred and ten hectares), the Abbey of Lucedio in 1784, and other properties across Northern Italy. One of the
most valuable endowments was the peninsula of S. Antioco, in the south-west of the island of Sardinia, granted to the Order by Charles Emmanuel III in 1758 - this was rich in minerals and extremely fertile and from 1776 had the exclusive right to a percentage of the tuna catch. The ecclesiastical prestige of the Order was enhanced by an act of 15 February 1729, in which the Church of Saint Paul (called Santa Croce) in Turin became a Magistral Basilica, a distinction also extended to the former Church of the Jesuits in Cagliari by a decree of 24 August 1809. While possession of these churches have been lost the knights gather annually at the Monastery of Saint Maurice in the presence of the Grand Master, retaining that ancient connection. Thus, by the end of the 18th century, the Order was an immensely wealthy and prestigious organ•ization, described as a "State within a State", an autonomous institution enjoying virtually complete exemption from civil jurisdiction and administration. As a Religion of the Church, it also enjoyed its own internal ecclesiastical jurisdiction under the authority of the Grand Prior, who shared the government of the Order with its other high functionaries, the Grand Admiral (who com•manded the trireme galleys - the Piemonteisa and the Margarita), the Grand Marshal (who commanded the armed forces of the Order), the Grand Conservator (who administered the patri•mony of the Order), the Grand Chancellor (who was responsible for the legal and juridical affairs), the Grand Treasurer (who administered the Treasure) and Grand Hospitaller (who dealt with the charitable and hospitaller work). The Order was divided into two classes; knights of Justice and knights of Grace, the former being required to prove various qualifications including nobility in each of the four quarters, with the applicant's ancestry presented and certified showing fourteen noble antecedents.11 Knights of Grace had to prove that they were Catholic, of "onesta famiglia", born of legitimate marriage and of good manners. The professed knights, who alone could enjoy Commanderies of the Order, were required to make a promise of marital chastity (i.e. that they would not take a mistress and would remain faithful to their wives), and of obedience to the Grand Master, and all were required to offer service to the hospitals of the Order and to defend Catholic civilization.12
These requirements were clearly laid out in the Instruction of 8 January 1714, which regulated how application to join the Order should be made and required that the noble proofs should include a genealogical tree in which the postu•lant would give the surname and forenames of his parents, his four grandparents and eight-great grandparents with paintings of the arms of four of the eight great-grandparents (thus slightly modifying the original requirements). The grades of the Order were grand cross and knight, although both grades were entitled to enjoy the usufruct of the Commanderies of the Order with the title of commander. The Napoleonic administration, by a law of the Piedmontese Council of 21 August 1800, confiscat•ed the mainland benefices of the Order (excluding those in Sardinia, which remained under the rule of the Duke of Savoy as King). To avoid alienating the nobility the Commanderies giuspatronato were returned to the families who had endowed them. On 9 February 1801 the newly appointed Republican Commission suppressed the Hospital in Turin, leaving the Order in mainland Italy without properties or purpose. Following the fall of the Bonapartist regime, King Victor Emmanuel I concentrated first on recovering all the Order's benefices and Commanderies. Then, by Royal Magistral letters patent of 27 December 1816, he proposed a new, revised body of Statutes for the Order, slightly modifying the requirements for entry into the two classes but confirming the requirement for marital chastity on the part of the professed knights, humble and faithful obedi•ence to the Grand Master, and the practice of charitable and hospitaller works, particularly for the relief of leprosy. The statutes were modified again by Carlo Alberto I, in Magistral letters patent of 9 December 1831, laicising the Order and abolishing the internal legal jurisdiction that had been established by the first Grand Master; ten days later he introduced the grade of com•mander as an intermediary rank between grand cross and knight, no longer associating it with the tenure of a Commandery. A further reform of 19 July 1839 introduced the Maurizian Medal for military service - however recipients did not become members of the Order. All these changes had the affect of modifying the character of the Order, which was transformed from a primarily noble Order (as in the eighteenth century), to one in which merit was the principle reason for admission - of the one thousand three hundred and twenty-eight admissions made between 1814 and 1851, only two hundred and ninety-five were in the category of Justice and one thousand and thirty-three in that of Grace. This change was formalized by two decrees of Victor-Emmanuel II, of 1851 and 1860, uniting as one the two separate classes of Justice and Grace and abolishing the ancient dignities of Grand Admiral and Grand Marshal, redundant now the Order no longer maintained a fleet or army. By separate provisions of 1855 and 1857 two further intermediary grades of Officer and Grand Offcer were introduced between those of Knight and Commander, and Commander and Grand Cross respectively. The government was placed in the hands of the Grand Master directly, who dele•gated the administration of its affairs to the First Secretary of the Order. The ecclesiastical jurisdic•tion of the Grand Prior was also abolished and the churches of the Order put under the jurisdic•tion of the local Ordinaries, although the rights of the Order to utilize the Magistral Basilicas in Turin and Cagliari and the Priory of Torre Pellice remained unaffected.
None of these reforms affected the dynastic status of the Order, which continued to be awarded by the Duke of Savoy, not as King of Italy but as Grand Master of the "Sacra Religione ed ordine militare gerosolomitano dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro, sotto la Regola di S. Agostino". When the last reforms to the statutes made during the Italian kingdom were published in 1907, the decree still stated that it was the intention to con•serve "glorioso Istituto Mauriziano il particolare complesso di ordinamenti quale fu determinato dalla saggezza dei nostri Augusti predecessori e Sovrani Gran Maestri". These decrees continued to be described as Royal Magistral Patents and were executed by Royal Magistral authority (rather than as King of Italy). Victor-Emmanuel added considerably to the patrimony of the Order by granting it the estates and benefices confiscated from the Constantinian Orders in Parma and the Two Sicilies. The Order was exempted from the requirement of every other charitable or pious institution to present details of the accounts of its ecclesiastical benefices to the local Provincial Councils, retaining most aspects of its internal jurisdiction. Its varied humanitarian activities were still maintained, with the adminis•tration of hospitals in Turin (founded in 1573), Aosta (founded 1773), Valenza (founded 1776), Lanzo (founded 1769) and Lucerne and elementary schools in Torre Pellice, Stupinigi and Staffarda, an institute for the study of alpine flora in Scarnafagi and, finally, religious and spiritual activities through the maintenance of various churches. The recent confiscation and secularization of these activities and benefices by the Italian Republic, properties conferred on the Order by the Dukes of Savoy in their separate role as Grand Master and, as religious benefices, under the ultimate jurisdiction of the Holy See, was contrary to the legal protection to which every institution in the modern Italian democracy should have been entitled.13 It may also have infringed the Sovereign jurisdiction of the Holy See over religious institutions defined in the Lateran treaty of 1929.14
During the eighty-six years of the Savoy Kingdom of Italy, the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus was awarded as the second highest Order of the Kingdom, after the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation. By a decree of 20 February 1868 the grades were reorganized into grand cross dec•orated with the grand cordon, which all knights of the Annunciation received automatically,15 grand officer,16 commander, officer and knight. These reforms were confirmed by a decree of 17 November 1907 and a further provision of that year stated that members were not automatically entitled to use the uniform of the Order but had to receive Grand Magistral permission so to do. During the period from 1860 and 1946 the Order became increasingly closely linked with the Italian State. By a royal decree of 30 December 1929, a decree issued by Victor Emanuel III as "General Grand Master" stated the Order would be continued "in accordance with the Statutes" as a reward for special meritorious civil or military service to the state, in the fields of sciene, litera•ture, the arts, industry and anything else which served to "bring honor and grandeur to the Italian Nationa" (article 1). No-one who had not already received the Order of the Crown of Italy more than a year before could receive the Order (article 4) which would be given by "sovereign motu proprio" on the recommendation of the National Government (article 2). Nonetheless, the Order maintained its historic endowment, its status as an institution founded by Papal Bull, and was awarded by the King as "Grand Master". Thus it cannot be equated with a purely state Order such as the Order of the Crown of Italy, an unendowed foundation estab•lished solely for the purpose of awarding meritorious service (and which has been replaced today by the Ordine al Merito of the Republic).
King Umberto II continued to award the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus during his exile and following his death in 1983 and the succession of the present Grand Master, Crown Prince Victor-Emmanuel, Prince of Naples and Duke of Savoy, the Order has undergone a considerable refor•mation. Revised Statutes were granted by Royal Magistral letters patent of 11 June 1985, which defined the Order as an award for gentlemen and ladies to recompense distinguished civil and military service, for distinction in science, litera•ture, the arts, commerce, industry, education, humanitarian and other good works. The grades were amended to introduce the grades for ladies of the first class (limited to fifty), second class (lim•ited to two hundred) and third class (unlimited); these classes were renamed dame grand cross, dame commander and dame by a Grand Magistral decree of 23 June 1988. The 1985 reforms also introduced a new grade for knights, that of hon•orary commanders giuspatronato to rank between commander and grand officer. The grades for gentlemen were limited to a total of fifty grand crosses decorated with the grand cordon, one hundred grand officers, fifty commanders gius•patronato, two hundred commanders, four hundred officers and an unlimited number of knights. The Statutes provided for the appointment of a Council of the Order composed of the Grand Charges of the Order (entitled to the title of Excellency): the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Prior, and the Treasurer-General, with six Councilors (of the rank of Commander or above and who serve for three years), of whom one is appointed President of the Council, while the Vice-President is the Treasurer-General. The Order has established an Italian national charita•ble association, to which all members subscribed until 1991, when a separate International Association of Knights of the Royal House of Savoy was formed and in which all non-Italian members are enrolled. In the United States a not-for-profit ciorporation has been registered and accorded tax-exempt status by the US Internal Revenue. Knights and dames of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, in common with the members of the Civil Order of Savoy and the Civil Order of Merit of Savoy, are expected to make an annual donation to the Order and con•tribute a passage fee following their nomination to membership of the Order. These sums are employed to further the charitable and humani•tarian aims of the Order. Delegates have been appointed in each of those countries in which there are groups of knights, including Argentine, Belgium, France-Savoy, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland and the United States, while Italy is divided into ten regions.
The badge of the Order is a white enameled cross botonny set in gold, with the arms of the cross of Saint Lazarus, an eight-pointed maltese green-enameled cross set in gold, placed between each arm; the ribbon is apple green. Grand crosses decorated with the grand cordon wear the badge 67 mm in diameter below a royal crown suspend•ed from the riband or cordon; they also wear the cross of the Order ensigned on an eight-pointed silver breast star 85 mm in diameter. Grand officers wear the cross 50 mm in diameter below the royal crown suspended from a neck ribbon, with a four pointed breast star 75 mm in diameter. Commanders giuspatronato wear the same neck decoration as grand officers with the plain cross of the Order worn as a breast star. Commanders wear the same neck decoration as the preceding grades. Officers wear a smaller cross 35 mm in diameter below the crown, suspended from a ribbon worn on the left breast. Knights wear the same cross as officers but without the royal crown. Dames grand cross wear the cross 37 mm in diameter ensigned by the crown and suspended from a bow decorated with gold embroidery on the ribbon bow; dame commanders wear the same decoration without the embroidery; ladies of the third class the same but without the crown. There is an elaborate dark green military uniform with white breeches and the knights may wear church robes on suitable occasions, these are a cassock in deep purple silk with the cross embroidered on the left side. The present Grand Chancellor is Count Gherardo Balbo di Vinadio, who suc•ceeded Count Franco Antamoro, Patrizio Romano coscritto, in 1993; the Treasurer-General and Vice-President of the Council is Don Piero dei Duchi Caffarelli; the Grand Prior is Monsignor Giuseppe Muller.
The badge of this Society was the same Cross botonny used later by the 1572 Order, and is represented in an effigy of Umberto, bastard of Savoy, illustrated by Dino Muratore, in La fondazione dell'ordine del Collare della SS.Annunziata,Torino 1909 (see D'A.J.D. Boulton, The Knights of the Crown, Boydell Press, 1987, p.260). See Boulton, op.cit., p.256, note 18. Himself a knight of the English Order of the Garter. The dynastic nature of the Grand Magistery which had been conferred on the Dukes of Savoy by the Pope, was emphasized in a Magistral letters patent of 22 January 1573/4 by which Grand Master Emmanuel-Filiberto stated that the Popes had conceded "a noi et nostri successori del sangue nostro duchi di Savoia il Gran Magisteriato ereditario dell'uno e dell'altro Ordine". It was clearly unrelated to the sovereignty of Savoy itself, which the Savoy Kings of Italy had lost long since, without any infringement of their enjoyment of the Grand Magistery. Neither could a claimant to the Duchy of Savoy or the Italian Crown who was not of the Savoy family claim the Grand Magistery. " ... ex mera liberlitate et certa scientia nostra, ac de Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine, Militiam S. Lazari praedictam cum illius Magistratu, ac omnibus et quibuscumque Prioratibus, Praeceptoriis, Hospitalibus et aliis beneficiis regularibus ......ac etiam exceptis iis quae in Regnis et Dominiis charissimi in Christo filii nostri Philippi Hispaniarum Regis Catholici existunt, eidem Militiae S. Mauritii, quae in posterum Militia SS. Mauritii et Lazari nuncupetur, auctoritate Apostolica tenore praesentium ita perpetuo unimus, annectimus et incorporamus, ut posthac in perpetuum praedictus Emmanuel Philibertus, et pro tempore eixtsns Sabaudiae Dux Militiae Sanctorum Mauritii et Lazari Magister sit et appelletur". See Alessandro Ferrari, L'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro, in Rivista Araldica, 1955, pp. 117-122; "Historicus", Sull'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro, in Rivista Araldica, 1969, pp. 193-200, pp. 228-235; and Conte Vittorio Prunas Tola, L'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro, Milano 1966. Of the extensive recent bibliography of the modern "Order of Saint Lazarus", the historical veracity of those works produced by members of this organization anxious to promote the legitimacy of their "Order" must be viewed with a highly critical eye.The best critical histories of the purported survival of this Order were by Count Charles Zeininger de Borja, L'Ordre de Saint Lazare, and the Marquès de Villarreal de Alava, Las falsas Ordenes de Caballeria ... sobre la ilegitimidad de la actual "Orden de San Lazaro", published in Hidalguia, 1953, no. 3, pp. 501-620. See Appendix, The Military Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus. Later historians of the Order have written of examples of bravery by the knights of Saint Lazarus - while some very probably did distinguish themselves, the small number of military brethren cannot have made a significant differ•ence to the strength of the crusader armies.Their active
participation in the defense of Acre in 1291 was the most honorable event in the Order's military history.
9. See later, following this chapter "A Note on the Order of Saint Lazarus".
10. When its possessions were confiscated by the Republic and reorganized by the new administration as an Ente ospedaliero funzionante in base alle leggi.
11. Other qualifications included to be born of legitimate marriage, not to descend from non-Christians or heretics, not to be married bigamously, not to have been convicted of a major crime, to be at least seventeen years, not to be a member of another Religion, and not to be encum•bered with debt.
12. Religious Profession in the Order was never abolished but, after the 1831 reforms,which among other things dispensed with the need to make profession to enjoy Commanderies, or other high offices, no more professions were made.
13. After the fall of the Kingdom of Italy the Italian Republic attempted to recover certain properties and investments of King Umberto II in Great Britain. An outraged High Court Judge dismissed the government's claim as complete•ly unwarranted and illegal.
14.The former Cardinal Secretary of State,Agostino Casaroli, publicly accepted the Collar of the Order of the Annunziata despite its purported abolition by the Italian republic, thereby asserting Vatican authority over bodies founded under papal authority.
15. The definition "decorated with the grand cordon" was used to make it clear that all knights of the grand cross were entitled to wear the green silk riband (over the right shoulder across to the left hip) - for example a grand cross of Malta is not entitled to the riband unless a bailiff, or specifically awarded the "grand cross with riband" (fascia). This grade could be awarded to ambassadors, ministers and minister-secretaries of state, presidents of the council of state and the court of accounts, first-presidents and procurator-generals of the court of Cassation, army generals, admirals, etc. Knights of the Annuciation who are entitled to the Grand Cordon of Saints Maurice and Lazarus are no longer listed in the Saints Maurice and Lazarus roll.
16. Awarded to lesser envoys and ministers plenipotentiary of the 2nd class, senior judges, major-generals, rear-admi•rals, and mayors of major cities.
17. Received as a knight of Saint John in the Langue of Auvergne, 1532.